Etymology: L, trimestris, three months
One of the three periods of approximately 3 months into which pregnancy is divided. The first trimester includes the time from the first day of the last menstrual period to the end of 12 weeks. The second trimester, closer to 4 months in length than 3, extends from the twelfth to the twenty-eighth week of gestation. The third trimester begins at the twenty-eighth week and extends to the time of delivery.
(from the Free Online Medical Dictionary)
“Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common in the third trimester of pregnancy. In this case-control study, 22.5% of 211 women had RLS. The RLS cases had a history of growing pains (GP) more frequently than controls (P = 0.042). A family history of GP (P = 0.025) and RLS (P = 0.018) was more frequent among cases than controls. RLS in pregnancy is predicted by family history of RLS and GP, and by childhood history of GP.”
“A common sleep disorder in pregnancy: Restless legs syndrome and its predictors.” Balendran J, Champion D, Jaaniste T, Welsh A. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Jun;51(3):262-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2011.01294.x. Epub 2011 Mar 16.
“1,022 pregnant women living in a French town were included in our study. 24% of women were affected by RLS during their pregnancy. The disease was strongly related to the third trimester of pregnancy and had a significant impact on sleep leading to severe nocturnal and diurnal consequences with a high consumption of sleep medication.”
“Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a questionnaire study in the Poitiers District, France.” Neau JP, Porcheron A, Mathis S, Julian A, Meurice JC, Paquereau J, Godeneche G, Ciron J, Bouche G. Eur Neurol. 2010;64(5):268-74. Epub 2010 Oct 27.
“RLS prevalence increased from 0 during preconception to 23% (n = 7) during the third trimester of pregnancy.”
“Restless legs syndrome and sleep disturbance during pregnancy: the role of folate and iron.” Lee KA, Zaffke ME, Baratte-Beebe K. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001 May;10(4):335-41.
“A significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) is produced in the third trimester. These cytokines act as chemoattractants of polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulating the expression of prostaglandins in response to delivery preparation.”
“Vaginal cytokines in normal pregnancy.” G. Gilbert, G. Donders, A. Vereecken, E. Bosmans, and B. Spitz, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 189, no. 5, pp. 1433–1438, 2003.
“Pregnancy is a complex process which leads to a number of systemic changes. During normal pregnancy all these changes are very well regulated. Preeclampsia is a very common disorder of pregnancy and is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria that begins at more than 20 weeks of gestation. Poor placentation with inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion results in widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. There is increasing evidence that preeclampsia is accompanied by exaggerated maternal systemic inflammatory response to this poor placentation.”
“C Reactive Protein levels are elevated in the Third Trimester in Preeclamptic pregnant Women.” Zaima Ali, Saima Zak, Ambreen Tauseef, Ayesha Akmal. Dept. of Physiology, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore.
“Prokineticin-1 (PK1) is a recently described protein with a wide range of functions, including tissue-specific angiogenesis, modulation of inflammatory responses, and regulation of hemopoiesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and expression of PK1 and PK receptor-1 (PKR1), their signaling pathways, and the effect of PK1 on expression of the inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and IL-8 in third-trimester placenta.
Our study demonstrates that PK1 and PKR1 are highly expressed in third-trimester placenta with PK1 up-regulating expression of IL-8 and COX-2 potentially via activation of PKR1 and cross-talk with EGFR. The latter finding is supported by double-immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry studies that show that PKR1 colocalizes with IL-8 and COX-2 in placenta. Together, these data suggest that PK1 may be a novel paracrine mediator of the inflammatory response in third-trimester placenta.”
“Prokineticin-1: A Novel Mediator of the Inflammatory Response in Third-Trimester Human Placenta.“ Fiona C. Denison, Sharon Battersby, Anne E. King, Michael Szuber, and Henry N. Jabbour. Endocrinology. 2008 July; 149(7): 3470–3477. doi: 10.1210/en.2007-1695
RLS occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy. Inflammation occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy.