Archive for August, 2019

“HIGH LEVELS OF RARE GUT BACTERIA MAY BE LINKED TO RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME” by American Academy of Sleep Medicine

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Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may be more prevalent among patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS), according to preliminary findings from a small, new study.

Results show that SIBO was found in all seven participants who have RLS. In contrast, the prevalence of SIBO in the general population is estimated to be no more than 15%.

“We’ve observed extremely high rates of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in the RLS group,” said lead author Daniel Jin Blum, Ph.D., D.B.S.M., an adjunct clinical instructor at Stanford Center for Sleep Sciences and Medicine in Redwood City, California. “Exploring the relationship between RLS and gut microbial health has the potential to open novel avenues for possible detection, prevention and treatment for RLS and other sleep disorders.”

4af41defdea9b6dbe9b18a711b0d00f6SIBO is a condition in which rare gut-residing bacteria are over-represented in the gut. RLS is a sensorimotor disorder characterized by a complaint of a strong, nearly irresistible urge to move the limbs that is often accompanied by other uncomfortable sensations. These symptoms begin or worsen during periods of rest or inactivity such as lying down or sitting, are partially or totally relieved by movement such as walking or stretching, and occur exclusively or predominantly in the evening or at night.

Low iron in the brain is a key risk factor for RLS. According to the authors, this brain iron deficiency may be secondary to dietary iron deficiency or, potentially, gut inflammation.

Study participants completed questionnaires concerning sleep and SIBO syfdn-95mptoms and took home a fecal collection kit and a SIBO breath test kit. Fecal samples were examined by the University of Minnesota Genomics Center, and SIBO breath samples were evaluated by Aerodiagnostics for hydrogen and methane abnormalities.

Additional study participants continue to be recruited at the Stanford Sleep Center. Further analyses will examine fecal microbial composition, subtypes of RLS iron deficiency, and comparisons with insomnia.

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“THERE IS DIMINISHED BRAIN IRON IN PATIENTS WITH RLS EVEN WHEN BLOOD TESTS INDICATE THAT THEIR IRON STORES ARE *NORMAL*” by The Johns Hopkins Center for Restless Legs Syndrome

use-thisRole of Iron in RLS

The single most consistent finding and the strongest environmental risk factor associated with RLS is iron insufficiency. Professor Nordlander first recognized the association between iron deficiency and RLS, and reported that treatment of the iron deficiency markedly improved, if not eliminated, the RLS symptoms.

Despite this strong association between serum iron insufficiency and RLS, only about 15% of the RLS clinical population appears to have peripheral iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 50 mcg/l). To account for this, Professor Nordlander in proposing his “iron deficiency” hypothesis of RLS stated “It is possible…that there can exist an iron deficiency in the tissues in spite of normal serum iron.”

This hypothesis has led investigators to examine whether the brain could be deficient in iron in the face of otherwise normal serum iron measures.

All studies to date support the concept of diminished brain iron in patients with RLS even when blood tests indicate that their iron stores are normal. Cerebrospinal fluid obtained by lumbar puncture has shown that the iron storage protein ferritin is low in RLS patients, despite these patients having normal serum levels of iron and ferritin.

Studies using MRI have shown decreased iron concentrations in the substantia nigra, one of the primary brain regions where dopamine-producing cells reside. One study using MRI found a strong relation between iron concentrations in the substantia nigra and the severity of the RLS symptoms.

Through the generous efforts of RLS Foundation, a Brain Bank has been set for RLS dopamine-systempatients who poshumously donate their brains for study. Studies on these tissues have shown markedly diminished iron and iron storage protein in the substantia nigra, consistent with iron insufficiency in the dopamine cells. Overall the studies support the concept of iron dysregulation in brains of patients with RLS, particularly in dopamine-producing cells.

Gaps in our knowledge. Despite the substantial body of research on peripheral iron regulation, we still know very little about how iron is regulated by the blood-brain barrier or by the different cells within the brain. Also there is a relative lack of research on the effects of having iron insufficiency and on exactly how a brain region can be low in iron yet other organs in the body have normal levels?

Role of Dopamine in RLS

Marked improvement in RLS symptoms seen with drugs that stimulate the dopamine system and RLS-like symptoms produced with drug that block the dopamine system implicate the dopamine system in the pathogenesis of RLS.

dopamine-chemical-structureAlthough cerebrospinal fluid is a crude method for assessing the dopamine system in the brain, data from CSF indicated possible increase in brain dopamine production. Imaging studies using special radioactive chemicals have found reduced receptor and transporter function in the brain of more severely affected RLS patients.

Tissues from the Brain Bank have shown that the dopamine cells are normal in appearance and number, with no indication of damage. However, these studies also found that the dopamine receptors were decreased and the proteins associated with producing dopamine (tyrosine hydroxylase) were increased.

The composite results suggest the presence of increased production and release of dopamine a malfunction of the receptors that bind the dopamine and transmit the dopamine signal to other cells. The increase in dopamine may be the brain cells’ response to the poor signal.

When you cannot hear the voices clearly on the TV, you turn up the volume. Cells interact with each other in the similar manner: if a cell cannot “hear” the dopamine message from another cell, it “tells” the other cell to “turn up” the dopamine. Thus despite the increase in dopamine, the end result may be a decrease in the effect that dopamine has on certain brains cells at certain times of the day (i.e., evening and night time) leading to the develop of RLS symptoms.

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Exactly how iron influences dopamine function is still unclear. Iron deficiency affects other systems in the brain, which potentially could affect the dopamine systems. Recent work done here at Johns Hopkins suggests another chemical in the brain, glutamate, may be equally important in causing some of the symptoms experienced by RLS patients.

Brain cells in culture and brains from animals show similar changes in the dopamine activity when the iron levels are lowered. We can uses these models of disease to examine the connections between iron and dopamine or glutamate, which may reveal what is happening in the human brain and specifically what is happening in RLS.

The Johns Hopkins RLS Center conducts and supports research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/restless-legs-syndrome/what-is-rls/causes.html

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“RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME IS A SIDE EFFECT OF UNDERLYING CHRONIC INFLAMMATION” by Yugeva Cryo

chronic-inflammationUntil recently, there were various competing theories as to the causes of RLS. Prominent theories included:

* Iron deficiency
* Dopamine dysregulation
* Infection
* Chronic diseases-kidney failure, diabetes & peripheral neuropathy;
* Certain medications
* Pregnancy

New research, however, indicates that although the above conditions are highly associated with Restless Leg Syndrome, it is underlying chronic inflammation that is causing these conditions in addition to the RLS. Therefore, RLS and the above conditions are actually concurrent side effects of underlying, chronic inflammation.

Groundbreaking research conducted in 2012 revealed “The fact that 95% of the 38 highly-associated RLS conditions are also associated with inflammatory/immune changes suggests the possibility that RLS may be mediated or affected through these mechanisms. Inflammation can be responsible for iron deficiency and hypothetically could cause central nervous system iron deficiency-induced RLS. Alternatively, an immune reaction to gastrointestinal bacteria or other antigens may hypothetically cause RLS by a direct immunological attack on the central or peripheral nervous system.”

Current research suggests that INFLAMMATION is the root cause of RLS, as well as the fire, flameconcurrent conditions (once thought to be the source of RLS).

The inflammation causing RLS can also affect iron levels. The scientific community agrees that inflammation can affect iron levels. The causality is often confused here: low iron appears to be one of the guilty parties when it comes to RLS symptoms but it is inflammation that is causing the low iron levels. Increasing iron levels will improve RLS symptoms, but addressing the underlying inflammation can actually cure the condition.

Dopamine imbalance and RLS are both caused by inflammation. There are many scientific studies that show that a dopamine imbalance can be due to either low iron levels or caused directly from inflammation. Increasing dopamine levels helps with the symptoms, but does not deal with the actual cause. The inflammation that is causing the dopamine imbalance must be dealt with directly if the levels are ever to stabilize.

Infection causes chronic inflammation throughout the body and RLS is simply a “biomarker” revealing the high inflammation.

Chronic conditions such as kidney failure and diabetes are associated with high inflammation throughout the body which then causes the RLS.

Medications hypothesized to cause RLS are known to increase inflammation.

Pregnancy-Development-3rd-Trimester0-800x640RLS is caused by the higher inflammation found in pregnant women. Many scientific studies show that RLS symptoms are at their worst in the third trimester of pregnancy. Studies also show that inflammation levels tend to be higher in pregnant women, especially the third trimester.

Yugeva Cryo is part of Evlee Healthcare Pvt. Ltd. – a progressive conglomerate of health professional from India. The young and vivacious company has been formed with a very clear focus to give innovative technological advancements to India and all over the world. Bringing in new technologies and fostering a new era of unconventional, yet highly effective and scientifically backed healthcare processes and practices to India, Evlee is all set to usher in a new regime of health and happiness to the classes and masses of the country and around the world. https://www.yugeva.com/about-us

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“SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION – THE CAUSE OF RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME?” by Jordan Reasoner, heathygut.com

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What if the cause of those frustrating leg twitches is something you can’t see or touch… and is rarely a diagnosis you’d receive at the doctor’s office?

We’re talking about systemic inflammation (inflammation relating to the whole body).

54 diseases, syndromes and conditions have been reported to cause and/or exacerbate RLS – all interconnected by inflammation.

The fact that 89% of RLS-associated conditions are associated with inflammation and/or immune changes have led researchers to develop 2 possible theories in the RLS – Inflammation connection:

Systemic inflammation can contribute to an iron deficiency in the brain:

Inflammation can lead to the production of IL-6, an inflammatory cytokine which can stimulate hepcidin production.

Hepcidin is the main hormone involved in the regulation of iron and increased levels can lead to decreased serum iron levels. The result? Decreased availability of iron to the brain.

Systemic inflammation can trigger autoimmune disorders associated with RLS.

RLS is associated with Multiple Sclerosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sjögrens syndrome, Scleroderma, Celiac disease and Crohn’s disease – all autoimmune diseases plagued by systemic inflammation.

RLS is present in up to one third of MS cases and is also common in those with Crohn’s disease – a disease associated with iron deficiency, inflammation, and bacterial overgrowth. One study of 272 Crohn’s disease patients found 30% were affected by RLS.

The bottom line is this – we have to address the factors in our life that cause inflammation and the best place to start is a damaged gut.

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A LEAKY GUT – THE MISSING LINK IN RESTLESS LEG SYNDROME?

You might wonder what the gut has to do with that uncomfortable feeling in your legs.

A damaged or leaky gut is a breeding ground for inflammation – the very inflammation that can lead to RLS.

A leaky gut allows conditions like SIBO (small intestine bacterial overgrowth), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) to wreak havoc on the body and contribute to things like RLS.

One study found 69% of RLS patients had SIBO while 28% also suffered from IBS symptoms (i. e. gas, cramping, bloating, and changes in bowel habits).

SIBO can lead to systemic inflammation and autoimmune changes (which can result in the nerves being attacked in RLS) and SIBO induced inflammation can increase hepcidin (the main hormone responsible for regulating iron).

No matter which way we look at it, inflammation is the common denominator.

So, how do we stop the inflammation that can lead to Restless Leg Syndrome?

Considering the overwhelming amount of research on the topic of systemic inflammation and a leaky gut, your gut is too important to be ignored.

However, a large majority of the medical community has yet to accept the role of the gut in the fight against RLS.

THE LEAKY GUT – AUTOIMMUNE CONNECTIONLeaky-Gut-1080

If you’ve been keeping up with the latest information in natural health, you already know it’s nearly impossible to ignore a leaky gut as part of the cause and solution to autoimmune conditions like RLS.

Alessio Fasano, M.D. has been on the forefront of recent autoimmune disease research and published a paper titled “Leaky Gut and Autoimmune Diseases.”

His findings present the idea that in order for an autoimmune disease to develop, 3 conditions must all exist together:

  1. A genetic predisposition to autoimmunity (i.e. BTBD9 gene in RLS)
  2. An exposure to the environmental trigger (i.e. Iron Deficiency)
  3. Increased intestinal permeability (a.k.a. Leaky Gut Syndrome)

For those with Restless Leg Syndrome, healing the gut means getting to the root cause so you can stop chasing your symptoms.

Healing a leaky gut is one factor that’s in our control and it can be done step-by-step with the right plan.

230px-HippoHOW TO TURN OFF AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE

Overcoming Restless Leg Syndrome requires a multifaceted approach to heal the gut and decrease inflammation.

Hippocrates, the famous Greek physician, stated “all disease begins in the gut,” and some 2,000 years later Fasano and many other leading experts agree.

Ancient and current wisdom both suggest that powerful healing must begin in the gut.

Jordan Reasoner is a health engineer and author. He was diagnosed with celiac disease in 2007 and almost gave up hope when a gluten-free diet didn’t work. Since then, he transformed his health using the SCD Diet and started HealthyGut.com to help others naturally heal stomach problems. https://healthygut.com/articles/overcome-restless-leg-syndrome-naturally

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New research published in the Journal of Physiology presents a breakthrough in the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS).

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RLS is a common condition of the nervous system that causes an overwhelming irresistible urge to move the legs. Patients complain of unpleasant symptoms such as tingling, burning and painful cramping sensations in the leg. More than 80% of people with RLS experience their legs jerking or twitching uncontrollably, usually at night.

Until now it was thought that RLS is caused by genetic, metabolic and central nervous system mechanisms. For the first time the researchers show that, in fact, it is not only the central nervous system but also the nerve cells targeting the muscles themselves that are responsible.

This new research indicates that the involuntary leg movements in RLS are caused by increased excitability of the nerve cells that supply the muscles in the leg, which results in an increased number of signals being sent between nerve cells.

Targeting the way messages are sent between nerve cells to reduce the number of messages to normal levels may help prevent the symptoms of RLS occurring. This could be achieved by new drugs that block the ion channels that are essential for the communication between nerve cells.

The research conducted by the University of Gottingen in conjunction with the University of Sydney and Vanderbilt University involved measuring the nerve excitability of motor nerve cells of patients suffering with RLS and healthy subjects.

Editor’s Note: There are other solutions other than drugs to deal with this effect. Diet, vitamins, supplements and meditation to name a few.

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