Archive for IT’S A FACT!

IT’S A FACT: People suffering from Depression have a higher prevalence of RLS. People suffering from Depression also have a higher prevalence of INFLAMMATION.

ImageBelow are studies confirming that people suffering from Depression have a higher prevalence of RLS.

“Epidemiological studies report a 2- to 4-fold risk of a depressive disorder in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) compared with healthy controls. The high prevalence rates of depression in RLS indicate an association between the two disorders.”

“Depressive disorders in restless legs syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.” Hornyak M. CNS Drugs. 2010 Feb;24(2):89-98. doi: 10.2165/11317500-000000000-00000.

“Lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorders was 36.8% among participants with restless legs syndrome and was substantially higher than in participants without restless legs syndrome (14.6%). Among the psychiatric diagnoses, DSM-IV major depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis with a lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 19.0% (n=8) and 9.5% (n=4) among participants with restless legs syndrome.”

“Restless Legs Syndrome is Associated with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder and Panic Disorder in the Community.” Hochang B. Lee, M.D.; Wayne A. Hening, M.D, Ph.D.; Richard P. Allen, Ph.D.; Amanda E. Kalaydjian, Ph.D.; Christopher J. Earley, M.B.B.Ch., Ph.D.; William W. Eaton, Ph.D.; Constantine G. Lyketsos, M.D., M.H.S. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2008;20:101-105.

ImageBelow are studies confirming that people suffering from Depression have a higher prevalence of INFLAMMATION.

“Inflammations that are hidden inside your body as a result of disease or an unhealthy lifestyle do not only damage your physical body. It appears that they can also affect your mental state by triggering a depression. Higher-than-normal blood levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), an indicator of inflammatory disease, increase the risk of depression two- to threefold, according to a comprehensive new Danish study.

“The risk of inflammation increases with an unhealthy lifestyle, obesity and chronic diseases. Our message to the public is that one should avoid getting into situations that increase inflammatory protein levels in the body” says lead researcher Dr Borge Nordestgaard, of Copenhagen University Hospital.”

ScienceNordic “Inflammation can cause depression: Inflammation in the body gives a two- to threefold risk of depression.” by Sybille Hildebrandt, January 6, 2013.

“Many studies show that people with depression have higher measures of various inflammatory markers in the blood than people who are not depressed (Howren MB et al., Psychosom Med 2009;71(2):171–186).”

Psych Central “Inflammation and Depression” by Charles Raison, MD. (10 Sep 2013).

“Mounting evidence indicates that inflammation may play a significant role in the development of depression. Patients with depression exhibit increased inflammatory markers, and administration of cytokines and other inflammatory stimuli can induce depressive symptoms.”

“Inflammation in depression: is adiposity a cause?: Shelton RC, Miller AH. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2011;13(1):41-53.


People suffering from Depression have a higher prevalence of RLS. People suffering from Depression also have a higher prevalence of INFLAMMATION.

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IT’S A FACT: RLS has a higher prevalence in the Elderly Population. Inflammation also has a higher prevalence in the Elderly Population.

ImageBelow are studies confirming that RLS has a higher prevalence in the Elderly Population.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by disturbing leg sensations associated to sleep complaints and excessive daytime somnolence. In the elderly, it affects 10 to 35%. After testing, we conclude that RLS is a prevalent condition in elderly, may lead to sleep complaints and is often underdiagnosed.”

“Restless legs syndrome in institutionalized elderly.” Dantas FG, Medeiros JL, Farias KS, Ribeiro CD. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2008 Jun;66(2B):328-30.

“Our findings suggest that restless legs syndrome is relatively common in the elderly and causes significant discomfort and sleep disturbance.”

“Restless legs syndrome in the elderly.” O’Keeffe ST, Noel J, Lavan JN. Postgrad Med J. 1993 Sep;69(815):701-3.

Below are studies confirming that INFLAMMATION has a higher prevalence in the Elderly Population.10135182_s

“Chronic low-grade inflammation is a fundamental characteristic of aging.”

“Chronic low-grade inflammation in elderly persons is associated with altered tryptophan and tyrosine metabolism: role in neuropsychiatric symptoms.” Capuron L, Schroecksnadel S, Feart C, Aubert A, Higueret D, Barberger-Gateau P, Laye S, Fuchs D. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Jul 15;70(2):175-82. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.12.006. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

“Chronic systemic inflammation is an underlying cause of many seemingly unrelated, age-related diseases. As humans grow older, systemic inflammation can inflict devastating degenerative effects throughout the body (Ward 1995; McCarty 1999; Brod 2000). This fact is often overlooked by the medical establishment, yet persuasive scientific evidence exists that correcting a chronic inflammatory disorder will enable many of the infirmities of aging to be prevented or reversed. Aging results in an increase of inflammatory cytokines (destructive cell-signaling chemicals) that contribute to the progression of many degenerative diseases (Van der Meide et al. 1996; Licinio et al. 1999).”

“Aging and Inflammation”

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RLS has a higher prevalence in the Elderly Population. Inflammation also has a higher prevalence in the Elderly Population.

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IT’S A FACT: People who are ANEMIC have a higher prevalence of RLS. People who are ANEMIC also have a higher prevalence of INFLAMMATION.

A pathological deficiency in the oxygen-carrying component of the blood, measured in unit volume concentrations of hemoglobin, red blood cell volume, or red blood cell number.
[From Greek an-, without; + haima, blood.]

Below are two studies that show that people who are ANEMIC have a higher prevalence of RLS.

“In this study all new patients referred for anemia to a community-based hematology practice over a 1-year period (March 2011-2012) were included if they had IDA and no RLS treatment. The prevalence of clinically significant RLS (RLS sufferers) was 23.9%, nine times higher than the general population.”

Image“The prevalence and impact of restless legs syndrome on patients with iron deficiency anemia.” Allen RP, Auerbach S, Bahrain H, Auerbach M, Earley CJ. Am J Hematol. 2013 Apr;88(4):261-4. doi: 10.1002/ajh.23397. Epub 2013 Mar 12.

“Iron deficiency, even at a level too mild to cause anemia, has been linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in some people. Some studies have reported RLS in 25 – 30% of people with low iron levels.”

“Restless Leg Syndrome In-Depth Report” The New York Times Online: Health

ImageBelow are two studies that show that people who are ANEMIC have a higher prevalence of INFLAMMATION.

“Inflammation arising from various etiologies, including infection, autoimmune disorders, chronic diseases, and aging, can promote anemia.”

“Anemia of Inflammation.” Cindy N. Roy. ASH Education Book December 4, 2010 vol. 2010 no. 1 276-280. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2010.1.276

“The anemia found in patients with chronic infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders, known as the anemia of chronic disease (ACD), is one of the most common syndromes in medicine, A characteristic finding of the disorders associated with ACD is increased production of the cytokines that mediate the immune or inflammatory response.”

“Advances in the anemia of chronic disease.” Means R.T. Hematology/Oncology Division, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center and the Medical University of South Carolina. International journal of hematology. 1999, vol. 70, no1, pp. 7-12 (61 ref.)

to-summarizeIT’S A FACT

People who are ANEMIC have a higher prevalence of RLS. People who are ANEMIC also have a higher prevalence of INFLAMMATION.

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IT’S A FACT: RLS occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy. Inflammation occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy.

Etymology: L, trimestris, three months
One of the three periods of approximately 3 months into which pregnancy is divided. The first trimester includes the time from the first day of the last menstrual period to the end of 12 weeks. The second trimester, closer to 4 months in length than 3, extends from the twelfth to the twenty-eighth week of gestation. The third trimester begins at the twenty-eighth week and extends to the time of delivery.
(from the Free Online Medical Dictionary)

Below are 3 studies confirming that RLS occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy.restless-legs-syndrome-pregnant

“Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common in the third trimester of pregnancy. In this case-control study, 22.5% of 211 women had RLS. The RLS cases had a history of growing pains (GP) more frequently than controls (P = 0.042). A family history of GP (P = 0.025) and RLS (P = 0.018) was more frequent among cases than controls. RLS in pregnancy is predicted by family history of RLS and GP, and by childhood history of GP.”

“A common sleep disorder in pregnancy: Restless legs syndrome and its predictors.” Balendran J, Champion D, Jaaniste T, Welsh A. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Jun;51(3):262-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2011.01294.x. Epub 2011 Mar 16.

“1,022 pregnant women living in a French town were included in our study. 24% of women were affected by RLS during their pregnancy. The disease was strongly related to the third trimester of pregnancy and had a significant impact on sleep leading to severe nocturnal and diurnal consequences with a high consumption of sleep medication.”

“Restless legs syndrome and pregnancy: a questionnaire study in the Poitiers District, France.” Neau JP, Porcheron A, Mathis S, Julian A, Meurice JC, Paquereau J, Godeneche G, Ciron J, Bouche G. Eur Neurol. 2010;64(5):268-74. Epub 2010 Oct 27.

“RLS prevalence increased from 0 during preconception to 23% (n = 7) during the third trimester of pregnancy.”

“Restless legs syndrome and sleep disturbance during pregnancy: the role of folate and iron.” Lee KA, Zaffke ME, Baratte-Beebe K. J Womens Health Gend Based Med. 2001 May;10(4):335-41.

100480667Below are 3 studies confirming that inflammation occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy.

“A significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) is produced in the third trimester. These cytokines act as chemoattractants of polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulating the expression of prostaglandins in response to delivery preparation.”

“Vaginal cytokines in normal pregnancy.” G. Gilbert, G. Donders, A. Vereecken, E. Bosmans, and B. Spitz, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 189, no. 5, pp. 1433–1438, 2003.

“Pregnancy is a complex process which leads to a number of systemic changes. During normal pregnancy all these changes are very well regulated. Preeclampsia is a very common disorder of pregnancy and is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria that begins at more than 20 weeks of gestation. Poor placentation with inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion results in widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. There is increasing evidence that preeclampsia is accompanied by exaggerated maternal systemic inflammatory response to this poor placentation.”

“C Reactive Protein levels are elevated in the Third Trimester in Preeclamptic pregnant Women.” Zaima Ali, Saima Zak, Ambreen Tauseef, Ayesha Akmal. Dept. of Physiology, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore.

“Prokineticin-1 (PK1) is a recently described protein with a wide range of functions, including tissue-specific angiogenesis, modulation of inflammatory responses, and regulation of hemopoiesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the localization and expression of PK1 and PK receptor-1 (PKR1), their signaling pathways, and the effect of PK1 on expression of the inflammatory mediators cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and IL-8 in third-trimester placenta.

Our study demonstrates that PK1 and PKR1 are highly expressed in third-trimester placenta with PK1 up-regulating expression of IL-8 and COX-2 potentially via activation of PKR1 and cross-talk with EGFR. The latter finding is supported by double-immunofluorescent immunohistochemistry studies that show that PKR1 colocalizes with IL-8 and COX-2 in placenta. Together, these data suggest that PK1 may be a novel paracrine mediator of the inflammatory response in third-trimester placenta.”

“Prokineticin-1: A Novel Mediator of the Inflammatory Response in Third-Trimester Human Placenta. Fiona C. Denison, Sharon Battersby, Anne E. King, Michael Szuber, and Henry N. Jabbour. Endocrinology. 2008 July; 149(7): 3470–3477. doi:  10.1210/en.2007-1695

to-summarizeIT’S A FACT!

RLS occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy. Inflammation occurs most often in the third trimester of pregnancy.

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IT’S A FACT: Yoga Lessens RLS. Yoga Lessens Inflammation.

ImageBelow are the results from a study done earlier this year showing that Yoga lessens RLS symptoms.

“Efficacy of an eight-week yoga intervention on symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS): a pilot study.” by Innes KE, Selfe TK, Agarwal P, Williams K, Flack KL. Department of Epidemiology, West Virginia University School of Public Health, Morgantown, WV.


Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common and highly burdensome sleep disorder. While relaxation therapies, including yoga, are often recommended for RLS management, rigorous supporting research is sparse. The goal of this preliminary study was to assess the effects of yoga on RLS symptoms and related outcomes in women with RLS.


Participants were 13 nonsmoking women with moderate to severe RLS, who did not have diabetes, sleep apnea, or other serious concomitant chronic conditions, and who were not pregnant. The intervention was a gentle, 8-week Iyengar yoga program. Core outcomes assessed pre- and post-treatment were RLS symptoms and symptom severity (International RLS Scale [IRLS] and RLS ordinal scale), sleep quality (Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale), mood (Profile of Mood States), and perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale). Participants also completed yoga logs and a brief exit questionnaire regarding their experience with the study.


Ten (10) women, aged 32-66 years, completed the study. Participants attended an average 13.4±0.5 (of 16 possible) classes, and completed a mean of 4.1±0.3 (of 5 possible) homework sessions/week. At follow-up, participants demonstrated striking reductions in RLS symptoms and symptom severity, with symptoms decreasing to minimal/mild in all but 1 woman and no participant scoring in the severe range by week 8. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were large: 1.6 for IRLS total, and 2.2 for RLS ordinal scale. IRLS scores declined significantly with increasing minutes of homework practice per session (r=0.70, p=0.025) and total homework minutes (r=0.64, p<0.05), suggesting a possible dose-response relation. Participants also showed significant improvements in sleep, perceived stress, and mood (all p’s≤0.02), with effect sizes ranging from 1.0 to 1.6.


These preliminary findings suggest that yoga may be effective in attenuating RLS symptoms and symptom severity, reducing perceived stress, and improving sleep and mood in women with RLS.

ImageBelow are excerpts from 3 scientific studies showing that Yoga lessens inflammation.

“Regularly practicing yoga exercises may lower a number of compounds in the blood and reduce the level of inflammation that normally rises because of both normal aging and stress, a new study has shown.”

“Yoga Reduces Cytokine Levels Known to Promote Inflammation, Study Shows.” Ohio State University, Retrieved April 18, 2011.

“The ability to minimize inflammatory responses to stressful encounters influences the burden that stressors place on an individual. If yoga dampens or limits stress-related changes, then regular practice could have substantial health benefits.”

“Stress, Inflammation, and Yoga Practice.” Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser, PhD, Lisa Christian, PhD, Heather Preston, BA, Carrie R. Houts, MS, William B. Malarkey, MD, Charles F. Emery, PhD and Ronald Glaser, PhD. American Psychosomatic Society, Psychosom Med 2011, doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181cb9377

Image“Yoga improved exercise tolerance and positively affected levels of inflammatory markers in patients with HF, and there was also a trend toward improvements in QoL.”

“Effects of Yoga on Inflammation and Exercise Capacity in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.” PR Pullen, SH Nagamia, PK Mehta, WR Thompson, D. Benardot, R. Hammoud, JM Parrott, S. Sola and BV Khan,. Department of Kinesiology and Health, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA. J Card Fail. 2011 Jun;14(5):407-13. Epub (2011 May 27).

to-summarizeIT’S A FACT!

Yoga lessens RLS. Yoga lessens inflammation.

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IT’S A FACT: Aerobic Exercise Lessens RLS. Aerobic Exercise Lessens Inflammation.


A recent study shows that Aerobic Exercise helps to lessen the effects of Restless Legs Syndrome.

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) – Progressive aerobic exercise training improves restless legs syndrome (RLS) in hemodialysis patients, researchers from Greece report.

As many as 30% of hemodialysis patients have RLS, but there are limited data regarding non-pharmacological treatment options to reduce symptom severity.

Previous research from the Greek team showed that exercise training could reduce RLS symptom severity by 42%, but it remains unclear whether the improvement in symptoms was due to systemic training effects or simply due to relief conferred by leg movement during the exercise session.

In this study, Dr. Giorgos K. Sakkas from the University of Thessaly in Trikala and colleagues compared the outcomes of progressive exercise training against a no-resistance exercise regimen in a randomized trial of 24 uremic RLS patients.

Exercise training consisted of 46 minutes of cycling on a recumbent cycle ergometer three times a week for six months. Exercise intensity was readjusted every four weeks in the progressive exercise group, whereas resistance was not applied in the control group.

Apart from an improvement in dialysis efficiency with progressive exercise training, none of the basic characteristics of the patients changed after the intervention period.

After six months, the International RLS severity score had dropped by a significant 58% in the group doing progressive exercise. By contrast, the control group saw only an insignificant change of 17%, the researchers reported in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation online August 8.

The progressive-exercise group also showed significant improvements in sleep quality and depression score, which were absent in the control group.

All three measures (RLS severity, depression score, and daily sleepiness status) were significantly better in the progressive exercise group than in the control group.

Image“Notably,” the researchers write, “this is the first study to show that some specific exercise-induced adaptations or responses must be responsible for the improvements seen in the RLS severity score and not just leg movement, which we know confers acute relief (as this is the first study to employ an exercise training control group, i.e., exercise with no resistance, and to thus also account for any placebo effect previously unaccounted for in past exercise versus non-exercise studies).”

“Further research is needed in order to clarify the exact mechanism by which systematic exercise training could affect the dopaminergic system of the brain in the hemodialysis patients with RLS,” the investigators conclude.

Limited studies of patients with uremic RLS suggest that it results from pathophysiological changes similar to those in idiopathic RLS. Uremic RLS, however, appears to deteriorate faster and advance to a more severe state and to respond less well to dopaminergic agonists. Exercise has also been shown to improve symptoms of idiopathic RLS.

Below are excerpts from 3 articles and studies demonstrating that aerobic exercise ALSO LESSENS INFLAMMATION.78055744_XS

from Dr. Harris H. McIlwain MD,  

“Studies are beginning to unravel the intimate relationship between exercise and inflammation. Researchers have observed that aerobic or conditioning exercise significantly reduces pro-inflammatory markers in the body. In one study, moderate exercisers were found to be 15 percent less likely than sedentary individuals to have elevated C-reactive protein levels. In addition, those volunteers who exercised vigorously were 47 percent less likely to have a high C-reactive protein level than their sedentary peers.

In another revealing study, obese men with metabolic syndrome, were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet with daily aerobic exercise in a 3-week residential program. After three weeks on the regimen, the study participants experienced significant reductions in body mass index, fasting glucose and insulin, and inflammatory markers. In fact, a startling 9 of the 15 men were no longer positive for metabolic syndrome! Researchers concluded that intensive lifestyle modification of a low-fat, high fiber diet combined with conditioning exercise led to a better balance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses.”

from “The Relationship Between Exercise and Inflammation (and What It Means for Your Workouts)” by Mark Sisson

“Study after study (epidemiological and clinical alike) shows that extended exercise programs generally reduce markers of inflammation (like C-reactive protein) over the long-term.”

from “Infection, inflammation and exercise in cystic fibrosis.” by Pauline Barbera van de Weert-van Leeuwen, Hubertus Gerardus Maria Arets, Cornelis Korstiaan van der Ent and Jeffrey Matthijn Beekman. Respiratory Research 2013, 14:32 doi:10.1186/1465-9921-14-32 (6 March 2013).

“There is increasing evidence that exercise can modulate immune function in healthy persons and patients suffering from chronic inflammatory diseases, in an exercise-intensity-dependent fashion, of which patients with CF may also benefit.”

to-summarizeIT’S A FACT!

Aerobic exercise lessens RLS. Aerobic exercise lessens inflammation.

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